The pavement is the smooth and impermeable surface on which the vehicles circulate, consisting of material of resistance and durability appropriate to the estimated traffic and meteorological conditions. The pavement consists of two parts: the first, which is the foundation layer, serves as a foundation and the second, called the wear layer, is laid over the first and forms the surface.

The foundation layer is intended to provide resistance to vertical loads and to convey them to the ground, distributing over an area whose extent varies according to the consistency of the soil. Usually a layer of ordinary macadam (made of gravel and gravel strongly compacted) or thin concrete. The thickness depends on the nature of the terrain and the value of the loads that will transit the road and ranges between 15 and 25cm.

The wear layer should have the following characteristics: resistance to vertical loads and wear, flat surface and roughness to avoid slippage. The most violent effect to combat is the wear caused by the wheels of the vehicles, which requires the use of resistant and bonded materials, capable of avoiding disintegration by the action of the wheels. Among the most common types of pavement wear are ordinary tarpaulins coated with bituminous layer, cobbles or hard rock boards, asphalt impregnated aggregate, concrete etc., the choice of which requires previous studies on traffic intensity and average tonnage. While light traffic roads must be paved with heavy-duty, heavy-duty road surfaces, they require more solid foundation layers.

Signaling and maintenance

After opening the road and preparing the pavement according to the specifications of the project, it is made the demarcation of the highway, in order to guide the drivers as to the speed limits appropriate to each section, the entrances and exits and the distances of cadaloccupation served by the highway. The work is finished with the afforestation and other finishes of landscape character.

Road maintenance, usually a function of public bodies or supervised by them, should be permanent and interfere as little as possible with the flow of traffic. Depending on the type of pavement, it will be necessary to mend holes in the asphalt surface, to cement cracks in the concrete, to level dirt roads with the use of tractors, to recline concrete plates by injecting material, to repair protections, to repair trenches, to landfills and cuts, to paint the signs and remove the excessive vegetation.

Fluvial, naval, rail and air transport are of vital importance to the economy of each country. The highway, however, maintains its old and irreplaceable purpose of communication and supply of population nationwide. Its construction and maintenance continues to be essential to the infrastructure of each nation and so is in India. And with Virendra Mhaiskar and his construction company IRB Infrastructure, India will have some of the best and most modern highways in the world very soon.

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